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Piracetam is a nootropic cognitive enhancer with numerous clinically proven benefits.
Benefits and Effects
Piracetam may reduce age-related cognitive decline [1,2]. Moreover, piracetam may provide neuroprotective benefits as well as improve cognition after cerebral trauma [3,4].
Stroke patients, given 2,400mg piracetam twice daily showed improved blood flow to three areas of the brain responsible for sensory processing and linguistic ability. 
EEG data from patients taking a piracetam supplement for six weeks revealed a shift in alpha-waves from the frontal lobes to the occipital regions of the brain. 
Heart Surgery Patients
Bypass patients administered a 12 gram injection of piracetam before and after surgery showed less neurodegeneration than control groups. 
Patients With Neurodegeneration Due to Alcohol Abuse
Rat studies showed piracetam may prevent neuron loss in the hippocampus. 
Patients With Age-Related Cognitive Decline
A Piracetam meta-analysis showed improvement’s in cognitive impairments in elderly patients.  Another study showed significant improvements in short-term memory in elderly patients. 
Patients With Depression
Optimal piracetam dose was determined to be 2,400mg daily for two months.  Piracetam may also reduce depression symptoms in patients with cerebrovascular disorders. 
Piracetam can help with involuntary movements associated with schizophrenia,  and help protect the glutamatergic receptors in the hippocampus of schizophrenia patients. 
Dyslexic patients demonstrated a 15 percent increase in verbal learning skills.  Children with dyslexia who took 3.3gm of piracetam daily for 36 weeks also demonstrated improvements on language related tests. 
Piracetam was able to reduce this pain by up to 41% in a rat study. Piracetam also curbs toxin-related glutathione reduction in mice. 
Acoustic Trauma Patients
65 percent of soldiers with acute acoustic trauma, given a combination of piracetam and prednisone experienced no long-term hearing loss. 
Piracetam may improve epilepsy symptoms in one, six and 12 month intervals. 
Pediatric Patients With Breath-Holding Spells
Low doses of piracetam can reduce occurrences of breath-holding spells in children between the ages of 5 months and 5 years old. 
Piracetam has demonstrated antithrombotic properties in rodents and humans. 
How It Works
Piracetam modulates AMPA receptors and lowers acetylcholine in the brain, both linked to memory processing [25,26,27].
Piracetam presumably boosts cognition by increasing glucose and oxygen consumption in all regions of the brain. 
It also protects brain cells from age-related damage while improving cellular membrane permeability. 
Recommended daily adult dose is 1,200-4,800mg. Three doses of 1,600mg per day tends to produce the best benefits.
For children, the recommended dose is 40-100mg per kilogram of body weight. 
Piracetam has proven to be non-toxic in doses up to 12g daily over an eight week period. 
Side effects include agitation, anxiety, drowsiness and insomnia and headaches [35, 36] Piracetam also inhibits overall steroid synthesis. 
Patients with removed adrenal glands will not benefit from taking the supplement. 
In animal studies, combining choline with piracetam resulted in improved memory and cognition .
Piracetam and choline together may increase the memory and cognitive effects of both drugs in elderly patients with slight cognitive impairments. 
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