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Methylene blue is a synthetic compound that was originally produced to be used as a textile dye.  Soon after its debut in the late 1800s, scientists discovered that methylene blue dye could also serve a medicinal purpose. As a drug, methylene is an effective antimalarial and antidote for carbon monoxide poisoning and cyanide poisoning, thanks to its ability to stain pathogens.  
The potential nootropic benefits of methylene blue were explored shortly after the drug began to gain acceptance among physicians. Initially, the methylene blue injection was used in experimental treatments of neurodegenerative disorders, like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.    Today in the nootropic community, the purpose of methylene blue is primarily neuroprotective. The drug is best known for improvements in memory, mood, and overall brain health.     
Benefits and Effects
The following possible methylene blue benefits have been studied in both animal and human studies, and are thoroughly researched and well-supported in the academic literature:
Treating Mild Cognitive Disorders
The accumulation of a protein called Tau has been attributed to the development of neurodegenerative disorders, like Alzheimer’s disease.  An in vitro study examined the inhibitory effect of methylene blue on the Tau protein and the results suggest that the drug is an effective therapeutic agent.   Not only can the use of methylene blue stain help in the treatment of Alzheimer’s, but it can also be used as a preventative action.  
In another study with a focus on Parkinson’s disease, a rat model was used to observe the effects of methylene blue.  The encumbered rats showed significant locomotor deficits, as well as lower scores in neurological assessment tests.  Specifically in gait analysis, methylene blue injection increased stride length in the Parkinson’s disease rat model. 
Preventing Low Blood Pressure
Septic shock is the severe drop in blood pressure that occurs when a damaged organ becomes infected.  The use of methylene blue stain in sepsis has been found to be effective against septic shock by elevating mean arterial pressure.  
Improving Short-Term Memory and Cognitive Function
Short-term memory, or more precisely, working memory, has been shown to significantly improve after administration of methylene blue in both healthy rats and Alzheimer’s disease mice models.    In the mice model study, the rode
nts were tasked to complete the Morris water maze. The mice underwent eight and sixteen week trials, but spatial memory only improved following sixteen weeks of treatment.  Improvement was demonstrated by faster maze completion times. This finding could indicate that the effect of methylene blue on reference memory needs more than eight weeks to develop. Furthermore, a similar outcome was reported in healthy rats. The rats that were prescribed a low methylene blue dose showed significantly better spatial memory retention than the control rats. 
In human studies, oral administration of methylene blue at a low dosage was associated with enhancements to short-term memory tasks, sustained attention, and memory retrieval.   In the first study, healthy adult participants performed two separate tasks, before and after ingesting oral methylene blue, that reliably test memory performance.  Magnetic resonance imaging was used pre and post-treatment to assess brain activity. Increased brain activity in the regions responsible for visuospatial short-term memory tasks suggest improvement to overall memory performance after methylene blue treatment.  
Alleviating Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety
The prescription of methylene blue as an anti-anxiety and anti-depression medication is backed by several human studies.   
In two different studies, subjects with bipolar/manic-depressive disorder were prescribed methylene blue treatment for six and twenty-four months.   Participants who received high doses of the drug (up to 300 mg per day) experienced more significant antidepressive effects than those who received low doses of the drug (15 mg per day).  
However, in a separate three-week trial, 15 mg per day treatment proved to be effective in severely depressive patients.  It should also be noted that subjects in the two-year study also maintained a lithium treatment, in addition to methylene blue. 
Likewise, the same six-month study explored the anti-anxiety effects of methylene blue in bipolar/manic-depressive patients.  Using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, the subjects reported significantly decreased symptoms of anxiety after six months of treatment with a high dosage of methylene blue. 
Protecting the Brain
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with the early onset of neuropathological diseases.    When the complexes involved with energy production in the mitochondria of the brain malfunction, it can lead to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS).    High levels of ROS have been known to accelerate the aging process.  
In a rat model of Parkinson’s disease, the administration of the methylene drug successfully reduced the production of ROS and other harmful free radicals.  The antioxidant effect of methylene blue slows the rate of aging without any compromise to the efficiency of ATP production.  
Helping You Get Over Your Fears
Claustrophobia fear develops via contextual memory, a form of long-term memory where the circumstances of an event are retained. In a study with adult humans who suffer from claustrophobia, treatment with a high dose (260 mg) of methylene blue injection was combined with fear extinction training.  Contextual memory was assessed at baseline and after one month. Subjects showed significantly less fear after combined therapy when compared with subjects who received placebo.  A reduction in fear after one month could indicate the long-lasting effect of methylene blue on contextual memory and the retention of fear extinction.
How Product Works
The purpose of methylene blue as a nootropic is mainly neuroprotective. Not only does the drug prevent the onset of neurodegenerative disorders, like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, but it also acts as an antioxidant to prolong the longevity of the brain.   
The antioxidant effect of methylene blue is largely due to its ability to partially restore normal mitochondrial function and cellular metabolism in the brain. The mitochondria are the powerhouses inside of the cells, since this is where energy (ATP) is generated via mitochondrial respiration.   Mitochondrial respiration consists of a channel of five different complexes (I through V), where electrons are transported from Complex I to Complex IV to set up an electrochemical gradient of protons to fuel ATP production in Complex V.  However, the electron transport chain is susceptible to electron leakage between Complex I and Complex III. Electron leakage reduces the efficiency of mitochondrial respiration, and consequently, cellular energy. Furthermore, electron leakage is also attributed to the production of ROS.    A rise in ROS levels could cause damage to cellular components and lead to early signs of aging.  
Methylene blue acts as an additional electron carrier, which serves to transport more electrons through the electron transport chain and effectively overcomes the issue of electron leakage.  As a secondary outcome, methylene blue treatment also attenuates the overproduction of ROS and thus, delays mitochondrial dysfunction. 
The right methylene blue dose depends on the user and the intended purpose. For general use, it would be imprudent to make more than 2 mg per kg of body weight. For example, for a user that weighs 200 kg, the daily maximum dosage should not exceed 400 mg. However, 2 mg per kg is the upper limit dosage for rescue treatment, when the patient’s blood pressure is low.  Taking a rescue dosage on a daily basis is not recommended due to the risk of high blood pressure. 
The molecular weight of methylene blue is 319.85 g/mol.
As with any new nootropic, start methylene blue treatment slowly and gradually. A safe starting dosage for new users is 0.5 mg per kg of body weight. Methylene blue is not toxic at such low doses. Since the half life of the drug is approximately five hours, it is possible to take a full dose once daily, or a half dose twice daily. Supplementation with methylene blue can be prescribed as an injection or an oral administration (under the tongue), depending on the need for the medication.
The methylene blue side effects are mild and temporary when taken in low, therapeutic doses.  The most notable side effect of methylene blue is urine color. Methylene blue is famous for changing the color of urine to a shade of greenish blue. Likewise, skin discoloration after methylene blue treatment may also occur. It is also likely to observe methylene blue stains on the lips, teeth, and tongue after oral administration.
At high doses, methylene blue can result in toxicity. At the least, toxicity treatment for methylene blue requires a trip to the emergency room. Symptoms could include arrhythmia, coronary vasoconstriction, and decreased blood circulation throughout the body.  Neurotoxicity from methylene blue is more likely than some other nootropics, only because of its limited availability. The drug is most commonly sold as methylene blue for fish or for use in the lab. For dietary supplementation, only ingest pharmaceutical grade methylene blue.
Any nootropic that supports the function of the mitochondria, similar to methylene blue, is likely to be a suitable candidate for a stack. NADH, for example, could prove advantageous in a stack with methylene blue because of its role as electron carrier in mitochondrial respiration. Also, for methylene blue to work effectively, it relies on an adequate supply of NADH in the system.
In terms of drug interactions to avoid, methylene blue should not be combined with any nootropic that stimulates serotonin production. Methylene blue already contributes to higher levels of serotonin on its own. Too much serotonin could lead to serotonin syndrome.