Taurine

6.7

Health

6.0 /10

Immune System

7.0 /10

Heart Health

7.0 /10

Taurine

Bone Support
Boost Energy
Digestive Health
Heart Health
Immune Support
Joint Health
Liver Health
Longevity

Description

Summary

Taurine is a sulfur amino acid found naturally in the human body. It is found in the intracellular water with concentrations as high as 20 mM are present in cardiac tissue. [1]. Its primary function is as a lipid / membrane stabilizer in the body. Interestingly, cow’s milk does not contain taurine, while breast milk does. Most milk formulas are now supplemented with taurine to compensate for this loss in a natural source of taurine for neonates. [25]

The first source of taurine discovered was in ox bile, which was identified by scientists in the 1820s. [2] Taurine is found naturally in fish and soybeans, leading to studies on cultural groups that consume high levels of these foods in their natural diet. It has been found that the Japanese people (especially those from Okinawa) have high levels of taurine in their system. They also have among the lowest levels of coronary artery disease in the world, showing that taurine is a powerful nootriment having a direct impact on human health and lifespan. [3]

Numerous studies on taurine have been conducted over the years revealing a long list of benefits for human nutrition. It has a positive effect on liver function, the cardiovascular system, and glucose control. A number of studies also show taurine having the effect of reducing retinal degeneration in aging patients.

One of the most well-known uses for taurine is as a key ingredient for energy drinks along with caffeine. While many studies have been conducted to prove the energy boosting properties of taurine, the results have been inconclusive. [4] The actual energy boosting characteristics of energy drinks is likely to come from the other ingredients.

Benefits and Effects

Liver Health

In a study on rats in which liver damage was induced and then treated with taurine showed a marked improvement in the function of the cells using taurine treatment compared to those that were untreated. The livers were protected against histological damage and fibrosis. There were also significant reductions in oxidative stress markers and hepatic fibrogenic factors. The results of this study are promising with regard to the effect of taurine on damaged livers. Future studies should also confirm these results and investigate the mechanism by which these benefits are achieved. [5]

Human studies confirm the positive impact of taurine on liver function. Patients with chronic hepatitis were treated with taurine and the response was compared to others without treatment. All of the key markers showed a decrease in patients on taurine treatment highlighting the effectiveness of taurine to reduce liver injury for chronic liver hepatitis patients. [6]

Promotes glucose control

In an impressive study involving 39 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) compared with 34 control subjects, trials were conducted to determine the effect of taurine on diabetic patients. Plasma and platelet taurine concentrations were monitored showing a significant increase in diabetic patients. [7]

A study on rats has shown that taurine treatment has a positive effect on glucose metabolism. Taurine reduced blood glucose levels over a 12-week treatment period. It also significantly reduced insulin resistance. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the effectiveness in human subjects, but these trials show promising signs. [8]

Reduces the risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients

Type 1 diabetics are high-risk patients for accelerated cardiovascular disease. Early signs of this disease are arterial stiffness (augmentation index) and brachial artery reactivity (FMD). A human trial involving taurine treatment of male type 1 diabetics showed positive results. After 2 weeks of taurine treatment, both the above signs returned to normal levels when compared with non-diabetic subjects. [9]

May prevent cardiovascular disease

The underlying mechanism of many forms of cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis. Various animal studies have shown that taurine supplements retard the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. By acting on the primary cause leading to cardiovascular disease, taurine may reduce the risk of this disease. [10]

May counteract age-related retinal degeneration

Research shows that age-related retinal degeneration is linked to oxidative stress in the retina. Taurine acts as an antioxidant and taurine supplements have been shown to alleviate oxidative stress in the retina. Therefore, the research indicates that taurine may reduce the effects of age-related retinal degeneration. [11]

May contribute to the resistance of seizures

Studies have found that taurine plays a role in the inhibitory GABAergic system of the brain. Research using mice shows that taurine raises the levels of the enzyme responsible for GABA synthesis. These taurine-fed mice showed a higher threshold for seizure onset when compared to a control group. [12]

How Taurine works

Taurine works on the human brain by its action on the GABA system. It is this mechanism of action, which gives taurine its physiological benefits. As an inhibitory amino acid, it acts on a subclass of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. [13]

Another neurological mechanism of action for taurine is on the glycine receptors of the brain. Studies of mice using strychnine to induce anxiety demonstrate that taurine binds and activates strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors thus inhibiting the convulsions caused by strychnine. [14]

Taurine has a mechanism of action on the cardiovascular system. It causes ROS inhibition and [Ca(2 )] stabilization. The result is that taurine attenuates hyperglycemia-induced HUVEC apoptosis. [15] Other studies show that taurine has a positive effect on angiogenesis, which is the process of forming new blood vessels. It is the extra-cellular source of taurine that progresses Akt- and ERK-dependent cell cycles and Src/FAK-mediated cell migration. [16]

One of the key pharmacological actions leading to the benefits of taurine is its influence on the insulin signaling pathway. Studies on rats show that taurine improves insulin sensitivity and controls hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. It also restores the activities of the glucose metabolizing enzyme in fructose-fed rats. [17]

Dosage

Based on research into all the available data of clinical trials using taurine, an estimate of the Observed Safe Level (OSL) has been obtained. The evidence supports an OSL of 3000mg per day without any adverse effects. Many trials have been conducted above these levels without adverse effects showing that safe consumption may be higher than this 3000mg per day limit. However, the research above this level is not sufficient to draw safe dosage conclusions. [18]

Side Effects

Taurine may contribute to an increase in stomach acid. For this reason, people who are suffering from ulcers should be cautious to add taurine supplements to their diet. [19]

About 12% of patients taking taurine complain of some form of Abasia, which is an impairment in motor coordination. Any signs of this impairment should be discussed with a medical practitioner before continuing with taurine consumption. A similar percentage of patients indicate signs of muscle weakness. [20]

Like most other nootriments and supplements, abuse is possible. It is advisable not to make sudden changes to the dosage or combinations of nootriments without adequate research into the potential effects. One bodybuilder reportedly suffered brain damage from taking taurine together with insulin and anabolic steroids. It is not known what the cause of the brain damage was due to the combination of treatments taken. [21]

In a similar instance, a bipolar patient was hospitalized with symptoms of mania after consuming several cans of an energy drink. One of the ingredients was taurine. It is unknown what the primary cause of the mania symptoms due to the combination of different ingredients. [21]

Stacks

Taurine is found in most energy drinks and as such is combined with caffeine on a regular basis. One study shows that an energy drink having taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone had a positive effect on mental performance and mood of the subjects. [22]

Taurine may be helpful in the metabolism of vitamin C. Studies have shown that vitamin C metabolism can be influenced by sulfur-containing amino acids like taurine. [23]

Magnesium and taurine work together to minimize the cytoplasmic free calcium level [Ca2 ]. The complementary mechanism of action of these two supplements could lead to a healthy balance of calcium in the body. [24]

Taurine is considered quite safe for consumption and may be tested in combination with other nootropics in your stack. It is advisable to make changes incrementally rather than introduce a significant change in dosage at one time. If any adverse side effects are experienced, then cut back on taurine dosage and consult a medical doctor.

Additional information

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Sources

 

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3909770
  2. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/energy-drink-ingredients_us_5964df55e4b03f144e2ddfa8
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18651042
  4. https://www.news-medical.net/health/Taurine-Energy-Drinks.aspx
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19239160
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17690950
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7733037
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23114424
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20667936
  10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23224908
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14992274
  12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18727952
  13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1655497
  14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17728537
  15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10600775
  16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22130357
  17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16369195
  18. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18325648
  19. https://www.livestrong.com/article/459859-does-taurine-give-you-energy/
  20. http://factmed.com/report-TAURINE-causing-ABASIA.php
  21. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1024/taurine
  22. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11140366
  23. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15503229/
  24. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306987796900079
  25. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/009174358990056X

 

Also known as:2-Aminoethylsulfonic Acid, 2-Aminoethane Sulfonic Acid
Type:Antioxidant
Good for: , , , , , , ,
Stacks well with: DHEA,Aniracetam Capsules,Sunifiram,DMAE Bitartrate,ALCAR,Piracetam,ALCAR Capsules,Shilajit,Fucoxanthin,Hordenine,Spirulina,Agmatine Sulfate,Mucuna Pruriens,Cordyceps Mushroom,Ashwagandha,Triacetyluridine (TAU),Nefiracetam,Huperzine A,GABA,Instantized BCAA,Caffeine and Theanine,Quercetin Dihydrate,Phenibut,Dihydromyricetin,Artichoke Extract and Forskolin,Magnesium Bisglycinate Chelate,Tianeptine Sodium,Glucosamine Sulfate Potassium,Aniracetam,PRL-8-53,Methylsulfonylmethane,Theacrine (Teacrine),Vitamin B12,L-Theanine Capsules,Zinc Gluconate,Avena Sativa,Dicaffeine malate,Cissus Quadrangularis,MACA,Caffeine,Pramiracetam,Magnesium Citrate,Encapsulation Kit,Oxiracetam,IDRA-21,Synephrine,Best Nootropic Stack,Chromium Picolinate,Piperine Black Pepper,Phosphatidic Acid,Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA),Modafinil,Uridine,L-Citrulline Malate,Caffeine Citrate,Tongkat Ali,L-Arginine,D Aspartic Acid,Phenylpiracetam,Rhodiola Rosea,Guarana,St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum),PEA (Phenylethylamine HCL),Sarcosine,Sulbutiamine,DHA Softgels,Rutaecarpine,Creatine,Alpha GPC,Beta Ecdysterone,Citicoline,NALT,Turmeric,Tribulus Terrestris,Valerian Root,Guggul Gum Resin,Lion’s Mane Mushroom,Raspberry Ketones,Melatonin Powder,Vinpocetine,Noopept,Centrophenoxine,Methylene Blue,Choline Bitartrate,Adrafinil,Horny Goat Weed,Yohimbine,GW501516,Theobromine,Epicatechin,Broccoli Sprout Extract,TUDCA,Milk Thistle,Tianeptine Sulfate,Nootropics Sampler
Typical dose:3000mg per day
Half Life :Coming soon...