Etizolam

8.7

Relaxation

8.5 /10

Anxiety

9.0 /10

Sleep Quality

8.5 /10

Etizolam

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Anxiety Support
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Mental Health
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Description

Etizolam was developed in the 1980s in Japan as an anti-anxiety treatment. It is also used for other neurological conditions like insomnia and related sleep disorders. Etizolam has also been found to be a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist. As a result of this pharmacological action, it can be used to treat chronic subdural hematoma. [1]

Etizolam is a thienodiazepine compound which is related to the benzodiazepine drug class. The difference between a thienodiazepine and a benzodiazepine is the thiophene ring, which replaces a benzene ring in the molecular structure. The molecular difference is minor, but studies show that Etizolam is 6 to 10 times more potent in its pharmacological actions than diazepam. [2]

At this stage Etizolam is not authorized by the FDA for medical use in the United States. However, it is an unscheduled drug and is legal to use for research purposes. In terms of legality, the World Health Organization reports that Etizolam is used as a prescription medication in India, Japan and Italy. [3]

Etizolam in urine can be tested by high performance liquid chromatography. Some other lab tests do show positive results for Etizolam. However, the most common drug testing method Triage DOA used in ICUs and forensic labs does not pick up Etizolam. This is due to the difference in molecular structure between thienodiazepines and benzodiazepines. [4]

Etizolam Benefits and Effects

Etizolam was originally developed as a treatment for anxiety and sleep disorders but has been found to be effective in other treatments too. It is important to note that it is not approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States. However, it is unscheduled in a number of individual States. [2]

Reduces Anxiety

Two separate studies of the effectiveness of Etizolam for panic and anxiety disorders show very positive results. One study assessed patients suffering from panic disorders over a period of four weeks. Using various rating scales and a count of panic episodes per week, patients using Etizolam were found to show a marked improvement in chronic anxiety and phobic ideas. [5] In the other study patients with general anxiety and associated depressive symptoms were treated over five weeks. Analysis of the results showed that patients treated with Etizolam showed significant improvement in anxiety and depressive symptoms. [6]

Researchers also conducted a controlled clinical trial in which the effectiveness of Etizolam was compared with Alprazolam and Bromazepam in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Over the period of the four-week trial, Etizolam outperformed both of the other drugs in the trial for its antidepressant effect. [7]

May reduce auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia patients

Schizophrenia is a complex condition with diverse symptoms. One study using Etizolam has shown a complete disappearance of auditory hallucinations in a schizophrenic patient. This is a remarkable result given that the patient had previously been unresponsive to prolonged trials of neuroleptics. [8]

May combat insomnia

Insomnia is the condition whereby people have difficulty falling asleep. From a scientific perspective, it is quantified by measuring the time taken to pass from a full wakefulness state to sleep. This is called sleep latency. A study using rats showed that a regular dosage of Etizolam significantly reduced the sleep latency of the subjects. When the dosage of Etizolam was stopped, the insomnia returned. [9]

May reduce pain

Etizolam was used in an extensive testing program to determine its effect on reducing pain from tension-type headaches. A variety of patients suffering from this condition were tested using a combination of Etizolam and NSAID. For some patients, there was no noticeable change in headache severity, but a specific target group showed significant improvement. Young and female patients showed a statistically significant reduction in pain using the combination of Etizolam and NSAID. [10]

May treat chronic subdural hematoma

Chronic subdural hepatoma is a serious condition involving bleeding on the brain. The most reliable treatment is the surgical installation of a drain to relieve pressure on the brain. [11] The platelet activating effect of Etizolam allows this compound to be used as a realistic alternative to surgery based on human trials. [1]

How Etizolam works

Etizolam is absorbed into the human body via the gastro-intestinal tract. Absorption is rapid with peak plasma concentrations reached between 0.5 and 2 hours in human trials. The mean elimination half-life was found to be about 3.4 hours. This means that there is little accumulation of the compound in the human system [12]. However, elimination half-life can be extended up to 17 hours in a person with a slow metabolism. [13] Its bioavailability is very high in the 90 to 95% range as found in trials with rats and mice. [14] Excretion from the body has been found to be via urine (30% in rats and 40% in mice) and feces (70% in rats and 60% in mice) [13]

In terms of its neurological effects, the pharmacological action of Etizolam occurs on the benzodiazepine site of the GABA-A receptor. This receptor is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Etizolam binds to the regulatory site of the receptor and causes the opening of GABA induced Chloride channels. This facilitates GABA transmission through the channel. [13]

In terms of its platelet effect, Etizolam acts as a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist. Studies show that treatment using Etizolam may reduce the need for surgery in the case of chronic subdural hematoma. [1]

Etizolam Dosage

Optimum dosages of Etizolam tend to be in the range 0.25g to 3.0 g tablets. These should be taken one to three times daily.

It is possible to overdose on Etizolam. One patient was admitted to an emergency room after consuming a large quantity of Etizolam tablets throughout the day along with other unknown substances. The patient was unresponsive and exhibited a high level of sedation. Only after treatment with intravenous Flumazenil did the patient experience a reversal of symptoms. [15] The use of Flumazenil should be confined to cases of severe respiratory and cardiovascular complications. Most overdose patients can be treated through clinical observation and care.[16]

Etizolam is not recommend for use by pregnant or breast-feeding women. It is possible for the compound to pass through the placenta, depending on the stage of pregnancy and biological factors in the mother and fetus. In addition, benzodiazepines like Etizolam are excreted in breast milk. They can have a sedatory effect on the neonate. [16]

As with any supplement or drug administration, dosage should be started on the low end of the scale and effects monitored before adjustments are made.

Etizolam Side Effects

Research shows that the most common side effect of Etizolam consumption is pyrexia or raised temperatures. [17]

Many antidepressant related supplements and drugs cause a general dampening of cognitive function, and in this Etizolam shows a similar pattern. A study was done to evaluate the extent of this cognitive impairment using an auditory P300 event. Patients taking Etizolam were found to have a significant prolongation of P300 latency in this test.[18] Other studies have reported a mild response of day-time drowsiness while taking a prescribed dose of Etizolam. [6]

While some patients have reported liver disorders while taking Etizolam, statistical analysis shows that 89% of physicians reported that it was unlikely for Etizolam to be the cause of this symptom. Nevertheless, abnormal hepatic function has been reported when taking Etizolam. This should be monitored when beginning a treatment program. [17]

Data about the dependency characteristics of Etizolam are very scarce. One case of Etizolam dependency has been reported. [19] However, the patient dropped out of a follow up program and so no conclusive deductions could be made. In another case, a female patient was successfully weaned from Etizolam through a planned reduction in dosage and replacement drug. [20]

Etizolam Stacks

Research for Etizolam in combination with other supplements and drugs is limited. However, there are some recommendations based on reported trials where this has been done:

  • Escitalopram (an antidepressant) [21]
  • Propranolol (regulates blood pressure and heart rate) [22]
  • NSAID (acute treatment for tension headaches) [10]

The relationship between thienodiazepine compounds and the benzodiazepine class of drugs may also offer some nootropic stack options. Because both classes of compounds are used as treatments for anxiety or insomnia, it may be possible for Etizolam to replace these products in a Nootropic stack. However, care should be taken when changing combinations in existing stacks to avoid adverse side effects. Etizolam could be used in place of the following benzodiazepines or benzos as they are commonly called.

  • Diazepam
  • Flubromazepam
  • Clonazolam
  • Diclazepam
  • Alprazolam or Xanax

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Sources

1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16377949

2. https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB09166

3. http://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/CriticalReview_Etizolam.pdf

4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21485120

5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2272192

6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1981698

7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2572494

8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7902201

9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18789918

10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17443036

11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4974954/

12. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00280074

13. https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB09166

14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/39572

15. https://www.annemergmed.com/article/S0196-0644(14)01602-3/fulltext

16. http://www.inchem.org/documents/pims/pharm/pim926.htm

17. http://factmed.com/study-ETIZOLAM-causing-LIVER%20DISORDER.php

18. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21047414

19. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4264086/

20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25187742

21. https://www.tabletwise.com/medicine/etizolam-escitalopram

22. https://www.tabletwise.com/medicine/etizolam-propranolol

Also known as:Etilaam, Etizola, Sedekopan, Etizest, Pasaden or Depas
Type:Anxiolytic
Good for: , , , , , , ,
Stacks well with: Coming soon…
Typical dose:1mg one to three times daily
Half Life :6.2 hours
Etizolam

Etizolam

All Products
Anxiety Support
Cognitive
Improve Focus
Mental Health
Relaxation
Sleep Quality