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Cissus quadrangularis (Linn)  is a common medicinal plant that has long been found in Africa and Asia for over a century . Stems and leaves extracts from Cissus has been used in food preparation and as a raw drug in India for the treatment of various diseases .
Benefits and Effects
Cissus stem and leaves have been used for the treatment of indigestion, dyspepsia, bone fractures, along with diarrhoea and haemorrhoids , , . Cissus is involved with fracture healing, antibacterial and anti-hemorrhoidal activates .
Bone fractures and tendon restoration
Cissus has been previously reported to relieve pain in patients suffering from Osteoarthritis, in which Cissus was associated with producing prostaglandins . Cissus has been noted as showing beneficial effects on bone – improving the healing process in bone fractures .
One study reported Cissus as a plant agent possessing regenerative and anti-inflammatory properties – to elicit protection and regenerate articular cartilage .
Cissus also has also been reported to protect and restore muscles and tendons , .
Obesity and weight loss
One study showed significant decreases in serum lipids and glucose along with significant increases in plasma serotonin and creatine levels, using Cissus. 
Another study evaluating the effects of Cissus on weight loss in 72 obese people, found considerable waist size reduction after 10 weeks. Also, when combined with Irvingia gabonensis, a synergistic effect was reported; decrease of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose (when compared to Cissus quadrangularis) .
The ethanol extract of Cissus contains therapeutic benefits. In this example, an ethanol extract was shown to induce anabolic and osteogenic properties .
Cissus contains many beneficial extracts that have been said to possess pharmacological action 13], with stem, leaf and root extracts having properties considered crucial in managing various ailments .
For haemorrhoid treatment, a dosage schedule of 2x, 500mg capsules, dry powder form, were recommended twice daily as an effective treatment for haemorrhoid pain and inflammation, along with haemorrhoid size reduction . However, this study is not conclusive, and data remains unclear for haemorrhoid improvement .
A large clinical study of Cissus (Linn) reported that Cissus dosage varies depending on what is being treated – within the clinical setting being investigated .
It should be noted that as clinical studies investigating the benefits of Cissus extracts and formulations are still being determined, there have been no studies demonstrating that Cissus has anabolic and body building activities .
Safety in Cissus extracts has been reported as “exceedingly safe”  and there are filed patent applications for Cissus extracts .