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Pramiracetam, otherwise known by its branded title Pramistar®, is a nootropic designed for cognitive enhancement and improved memory retention, attentiveness, and motivation .
Benefits and Effects
Improved Memory Retention and Amnesia Reduction
A 1996 study revealed that those supplemented with pramiracetam demonstrated greater memory improvement than their control counterparts, who received either memory training alone or nothing at all .
400 mg of pramiracetam was effective in treating memory retention issues in young men with traumatic brain injuries. Further, the improvement continued during the month-long follow-up period after supplementation was discontinued .
Pramiracetam has been demonstrated to be effective against medication-induced amnesia. Pramiracetam was shown to reduce amnesiac effects in both young and elderly subjects .
Increased Concentration and Focus
Anecdotal evidence has reported increased focus, motivation, and concentration . Clinical research has not yet verified pramiracetam’s specific action in terms of focus .
Reduction in Anxiety (Social and/or Generalized)
Testimonials have reported that taking pramiracetam alongside other nootropics like aniracetam, oxiracetam, and/or piracetam helps alleviate social and/or generalized anxiety  .
Though some users have described amelioration in anxiety-related and depressive symptoms pramiracetam should never be taken in substitution to prescribed anti-anxiety or antidepressant medications .
Elevated Mental Alertness
An early study using rats compared pramiracetam to piracetam in terms of cognitive arousal. Pramiracetam sped up EEG waves in the rats’ frontal cerebral cortexes and dorsal hippocampus . Other results have validated that pramiracetam yields significant elevation in cortical and hippocampal stimulation and arousal .
Heightened Sensory Perception
The neurotransmitter acetylcholine plays a significant role in stimulating function in the sensory cortex . Pramiracetam supports production and activity of ACh, which accounts for its ability to enhance sensory processing .
How Pramiracetam works
One mechanism of action involves the assisted conversion of choline into acetylcholine and the subsequent neuronal synthesis of ACh . Pramiracetam also increases the production and synthesis of nitric oxide in the brain, which has been demonstrated to alleviate age-related memory loss in clinical research .
Pramiracetam affects cognitive function via the adrenal cortex, which is heavily involved in modulating the body’s response to stressful stimuli .
Pramiracetam is reputed to be safe and effective at a daily dosage of 1,200 mg at 400 mg thrice or 600 mg twice per day . Some clinical evidence suggests that a 1,600 – 2,000 mg dosage is fit for daily consumption as well . Pramiracetam is tolerated well even at high dosages.
Pramiracetam can be ingested in a powdered or capsule form. Users often mix a powder dosage of 200-400 mg with milk, olive oil, or a number of other beverages. Pramiracetam powder may cause an unpleasant taste and a slight burning sensation in the throat .
Reported side effects of pramiracetam are extremely limited.  Pramiracetam is non-toxic and non-addictive. Users can preserve pramirecitam’s long-term efficacy by cycling and taking regular periods off from supplementation .
The majority of clinical research studies have reported a lack of side effects in patients administered the nootropic [94.
Anxiety, fatigue, irritability, and/or abdominal discomfort have been reported. Others state that pramiracetam caused them to experience anxiety after stopping supplementation [3322. Users have also described emotional dullness .
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