Racetam Solubility

The racetam family dominates in the world of nootropics. But if you’re not taking racetams properly, they won’t yield the benefits you may have expected.

Someone new to nootropics may believe they’re a non-responder to some racetams. But you can change just a few things to unlock the full racetam experience.

The first step is becoming familiar with unique characteristics of racetams. A major distinction in racetams is whether they are fat soluble, water soluble, or different degrees of both.

Fat Soluble vs. Water Soluble Racetams

Water soluble racetams will usually dissolve in water because both are polar. The same is true for fat soluble racetams and lipids (fats) because both are nonpolar. This is not a binary characteristic as some racetams can be both water and fat soluble to varying degrees.

Substances can be soluble in more than one solvent. Certain racetams have properties that allow them to dissolve in both water and fats, with one solvent being more effective than the others.

Taking fat soluble racetams is more of a pain than water soluble ones as you cannot mix them in a beverage. As such, many individuals opt to buy empty capsules and cap the powder; this can also help you avoid the bitter racetam taste.

So how does this affect supplementing with racetams? Individuals should take water soluble racetams on an empty stomach, while fat soluble racetams work best with meals or a fat source.

How your body processes racetams depends on their solubility as well. Your kidneys process water soluble racetams and excrete them through your urine. Your intestines process fat soluble racetams and excrete them through your feces.

This explains why water soluble racetams have a much shorter half-life than fat soluble racetams. The kidneys process waste faster than the intestines.

Due to the half-life factor, most users choose to take their racetams in multiple doses spread over the course of a day.

Racetam Solubility

Racetam Solubility Cheat Sheet
Water Soluble Fat Soluble
Piracetam Aniracetam
Oxiracetam Pramiracetam
Phenylpiracetam
Noopept

Knowing that solubility affects the efficacy of racetams is helpful, but you also should know which category your racetam falls into.

Because some racetams are able to dissolve in both water and fats, we performed our own solubility tests. To interpret the results, there are a couple of terms you will need to understand: solution and colloid.

A solution is clear, transparent, and homogeneous. This means the dissolved particles will not settle out over time. An example of a solution is salt water.

A colloid is cloudy but homogeneous; like a solution, the particles of a colloid will not settle. Coffee and paint are colloids

When it comes to solubility, "like dissolves like" (i.e. polar racetams dissolve in polar solvents). This is because water is polar as are the water-soluble racetams.

In contrast, lipids are non-polar as are the fat soluble racetams. These shared properties are what allow these solutes to dissolve in their corresponding solvent.

Absolute ethanol's polarity falls somewhere between water and lipids'. As a result, absolute ethanol can sometimes dissolve the racetams, but it will not perform as well. The same holds true for propylene glycol.

Piracetam

This is the granddaddy of the racetam family. Discovered in the 1960's, piracetam is the oldest of the racetams. It is also the weakest when measuring strength in terms of dosage.

Piracetam Dosage

Piracetam powder requires approximately 2.4g (doses range from1.6g-3.2g) in order for individuals to experience its nootropic effects. This is often divided into three 800mg doses.

Piracetam Solubility

Piracetam
Solubility in Water at 23.3° C (mg/ml) 252
Solubility in Absolute Ethanol at 23.3° C (mg/ml) <10
Solubility in Propylene Glycol at 23.3° C (mg/ml) <10
Solubility in 95/5 Safflower/Olive Oil at 23.3° C (mg/ml) <10
Solubility in Oil at 85° C (mg/ml) <50

At 23.3° C, piracetam had a solubility of 252 mg/ml in water. In oil heated to 85° C, piracetam had a solubility of <50mg/ml.

All other tested solvents showed negligible solubility clocking in at <10 mg="" ml="" p="">

As explained above, nootropics can dissolve in more than one solvent, but it will often dissolve better in one solvent over others. Such is the case with piracetam.

As piracetam is water soluble, it shows the highest solubility in water. However, it is able to dissolve in oil heated to high temperatures, but at a diminished rate. In both room temperature oil and ethanol, piracetam shows even less solubility.

As the results show, piracetam powder is water soluble and is best taken with water on an empty stomach.

Aniracetam

Aniracetam Dosage

Aniracetam
Solubility in Water at 23.3° C (mg/ml) <.02
Solubility in Absolute Ethanol at 23.3° C (mg/ml) <.02
Solubility in Propylene Glycol at 23.3° C (mg/ml) <10
Solubility in 95/5 Safflower/Olive Oil at 23.3° C (mg/ml) <10
Solubility in Oil at 85° C (mg/ml) 1150*

Aniracetam is much more potent than piracetam, requiring 750mg two times a day. This racetam has anxiolytic benefits, so many individuals who suffer from nerves or anxiety prefer this racetam.

Aniracetam Solubility

Aniracetam powder is fat soluble and is better taken with meals or fats like fish oil.

During our test, aniracetam was not soluble in any solvent when at room temperature. However, when heated to 85° C, aniracetam displayed high solubility in oil.

* What is unusual about aniracetam is that it crashes when the heated oil returns to room temperature. This means it falls out of solution and both the cooled oil and aniracetam powder separate.

Oxiracetam

Oxiracetam
Solubility in Water at 23.3° C (mg/ml) 100
Solubility in Absolute Ethanol at 23.3° C (mg/ml) <10
Solubility in Propylene Glycol at 23.3° C (mg/ml) <10
Solubility in 95/5 Safflower/Olive Oil at 23.3° C (mg/ml) <10
Solubility in Oil at 85° C (mg/ml) <70

Oxiracetam powder is approximately 2-4x stronger than piracetam, requiring only 800mg to experience the sought after nootropic effects. Some prefer to take this in one dose. Oxiracetam is also noted for having slight stimulant properties.

Oxiracetam Solubility

What is interesting about oxiracetam is that it shows high solubility in heated oil as well as water.

However, oxiracetam shows greater solubility in water and is thus better taken with water on an empty stomach.

Some individuals prefer sublingual supplementation (under the tongue).

Pramiracetam

fish oil
Take fat soluble racetams with meals or a fat source such as fish oil. (CC BY 2.0)

Pramiracetam Dosage

Since it’s one of the more potent racetams, pramiracetam powder only requires a dosage of 250mg three times per day.

We suggest that you work up to pramiracetam rather than starting out with it if it’s your first foray into racetams. Pramiracetam is noted for its ability to improve focus.

Pramiracetam Solubility

Pramiracetam
Solubility in Water at 23.3° C (mg/ml) 5.2
Solubility in Absolute Ethanol at 23.3° C (mg/ml) 851
Solubility in Propylene Glycol at 23.3° C (mg/ml) 22.9
Solubility in 95/5 Safflower/Olive Oil at 23.3° C (mg/ml) <10
Solubility in Oil at 85° C (mg/ml) 4500*

Pramiracetam shows some solubility in absolute ethanol at room temperature. This is because while water is polar and fats are nonpolar, absolute ethanol is somewhere between the two.

Absolute ethanol is able to somewhat dissolve pramiracetam; however, it displays greatest solubility in heated oil.

Pramiracetam powder is fat soluble and individuals should take it with meals or a fat source. Anecdotally, some users report a burning sensation with sublingual supplementation.

*Once the heated oil returns to room temperature, pramiracetam falls out of solution and becomes a colloid.

Phenylpiracetam

Phenylpiracetam
Solubility in Water at 23.3° C (mg/ml) 1.3
Solubility in Absolute Ethanol at 23.3° C (mg/ml) <0.2
Solubility in Propylene Glycol at 23.3° C (mg/ml) <10
Solubility in 95/5 Safflower/Olive Oil at 23.3° C (mg/ml) <10
Solubility in Oil at 85° C (mg/ml) <50

This racetam is significantly more potent than the other racetams, requiring only 100-200mg two to three times over the course of a day.

Phenylpiracetam does not need to be taken daily and works best when taken before a major test, interview, etc.

Phenylpiracetam Solubility

While basic internet searches indicate that phenylpiracetam is water soluble, this is not the case.

Testing shows that phenylpiracetam dissolves in heated oil rather than water due to its hydrophobic properties.

These results indicate phenylpiracetam should be taken with food or a fat source.

Noopept

There is some debate as to whether noopept is a racetam. However, we’re including it as many users who take racetams will often try noopept powder as well.

This nootropic is a peptide derived from piracetam, however, it's 1000x more potent. Doses range from 10-30mg.

Noopept is touted for its neuroprotective abilities as well as its powerful cognitive boosting benefits.

Noopept Solubility

Noopept powder is fat soluble and thus better taken with a meal or a fat source like a fish oil pill. Some users choose to take it sublingually. Additional testing coming soon.

Bottom Line

If you are still lacking in benefits at the end of days or weeks of using racetams, it may be how you were supplementing them. Solubility matters. If you take fat soluble racetams without a fat source, your body will not absorb it as well. This means you will not experience its benefits and are wasting your money. Proper supplementation is the key to success with any racetam.

 

Disclaimer

Statements found within have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These dietary supplement products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Always consult a physician if you are unsure about taking a new supplement. Do not take this supplement if you are under 18, if you are pregnant, nursing, or have any cardiovascular issues.

Scientific studies cited are not conclusive and have limitations, due to of their closed environment nature. Referenced studies will not necessarily determine your experience with a supplement, since there are many unaccounted variables, which fall outside the scope of the studies.

The reviews contained within are the opinions of contributors and are not necessarily the views or opinions of Powder City. These reviews should not be taken as fact or recommendation, and are only opinions of products that the contributors may have or may have not used. Powder City makes no warranty, implied or expressed, to the accuracy of information provided by these reviews.